Glossary & Definitions

Our Music Industry Glossary will make sure you know your AVPs from your DTOs …


Audio-Visual Products. Relates to the AVP Licence issued by the MCPS for the manufacture & distribution of non-music based general interest DVDs for retail sale to the public for private use.


Burnt in Time Code – i.e. the time code is visible on the picture.


The British Phonographic Industry. The BPI is the British record industry’s trade association, the representative voice of the UK recorded music business.


The word comes from the Italian and means “mockery”. In music, the word appertains to an imitative performance in a non-serious manner intended to entertain by caricaturing, ridiculing or distorting the manner or spirit of an original musical work often relating to an original artist’s more sincere interpretation of that work.


The British Video Association. The BVA is the trade body that represents the interests of rights owners of publishers of video entertainment.


The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 is the current UK copyright law giving the creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works the right to control the ways in which their material may be used.


Copyright is the statutory right under the CDPA to prevent others copying or exploiting creators’ works in various ways without permission.


A new live or recorded performance of a previously commercially released song.


The process of inputting the rushes into the non linear system.  This can be done at varying pixilations which determine the picture quality with which the offline editor works.


The electronic transmission of the Advertisement(s) via the Internet to a user whereby the Advertisement(s) is stored for a definite or indefinite period on equipment (such as on a hard drive) located in the user’s home or on a handheld or other portable device so that it can be retrieved from such storage by the user for viewing but excluding, for the avoidance of doubt, Streaming.


Download to Own. A concept of legally downloading video productions to your computer on a permanent basis via the internet.


Download to Rent. A concept of legally downloading video productions to your computer on a non-permanent basis via the internet.

DVD1 (V2)

The Digital Video Disc licence issued by the MCPS for the manufacture & distribution of music-based DVDs for retail sale to the public for private use.


Edit Decision List – The final edit is expressed as a list of time codes which is stored onto disc (similar to a standard computer) and can then be sent to the neg cutters and sound suite.

Final Mix

Once the tracks have been laid by the sound editor a specialist sound mixer will mix all the tracks together varying the volume levels according to the requirements of the scene and the director who would usually attend this session.

Foley Session – Also known as Footsteps

The recreating of sound effects in the sound suite.  Specialist Foley artists are usually employed to create these sounds.


The global collection of interconnected computer networks utilising TCP/IP protocols and/or related protocols including the worldwide web and any subset thereof accessible by a user’s personal device(s) (including for the avoidance of doubt by mobile telephony) and whereby data is transmitted to such users.

Internet Media

The distribution of the Advertisement(s) by Streaming but in no event by Downloading (save where the Advertisement(s) is distributed as part of a Viral Campaign).


A licence is an authorisation to use licensed material as an element of agreement between two parties. A purchaser (or “licensee”) has limited rights from the owner (“the licensor”) to use and reproduce a musical or recorded work and governed by certain terms and conditions.


The act or process of granting licences.

Lip Sync

A term relating to singers miming in vision to a pre-recorded song.

M&E Mix

Music and Effects track – without the dialogue.  This is used for International Sales where dubbed dialogue is added to the M&E Mix.


(Most Favoured Nations) In music licensing, MFN means that a rights owner who requests this condition may not be treated less favourably than another provider of music in a particular production. MFN usually implies parity of fees.


The Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society Limited. MCPS is the UK society that collects & pays royalties (so called “mechanicals”) and other licence fees to its composer, songwriter and publisher members when a musical work is manufactured via any format including physical or digital copies of recorded music alone or as part of the soundtrack of television programmes, films, DVD and computer games.

Music Copyright

The original idea becomes protected by law as soon as it is written down or recorded. It is possible to have two copyrights in each musical work. If it is recorded, the piece of music (the musical work) is the first copyright and the physical recording is the second.  Ownership of the physical recording is referred to as the “master rights”.

Music Publishing

The business of music publishing is about contracting, supporting and promoting composers and their catalogues across a variety of platforms, managing the exploitation & licensing of the compositions (including global registrations with the societies, the collection & distribution of royalties) and generally seeking to protect and enhance the value of the compositions in a committed and professional manner. Distribution can be via public performance, broadcast, album/single releases, film, downloads and ringtones.

Music Supervision

Music Supervision refers to the job of overseeing the music content of a film or television production, and specifically advising the director and producer on the choice of music. The key to a music supervisor’s role is the cutting of deals with record companies and publishers for the music that will make up the film’s soundtrack. Watch out! Many so-called ‘Music Supervisors’ might be more aptly named ‘Music Finders’, as they may come up with great tracks for the film but leave a trail of inadequately negotiated licences for the producer, lawyers and accountants to sort out.  Musicalities take a more responsible role and treat Music Supervision more as ‘Music Management’ providing an end-to-end,complete service.

The Musicians’ Union

The representative trade union for musicians, arrangers, copyists and composers in the UK. In addition to negotiating agreements with employers’ associations it also negotiates and collects fees on behalf of its members for further and secondary uses of their recorded performances.

Negative Cut

The process of physically cutting the negative into the final order as per the EDL.  OSC/R is a well know form and this involves an over length cut of each frame.


The non-commercial distribution or exhibition of the Advertisement(S) by you (and/or the Client) in-store and at trade shows.

Offline Edit

The process during which the pictures are assembled for most dramatic effect.  The creative time for the editor and director.  This will end in a “fine cut” or “picture lock off”.

Online Edit

The process when the front and end titles and/or graphics are added.  The last stage in the post production process.


Producer Alliance for Cinema and Television. PACT is the UK trade association representing and promoting the commercial interests of independent television, feature film, digital, children’s and animation media companies.


A parody is a “send-up” or take off” intended to comment on or trivialise an original work, its subject, author, style, or some other target, by means of humorous, satiric or ironic imitation.


“Published Price to Dealer” or “Published Dealer Price”. Such terms, for the purposes of the AVP and DVD1 (2) Agreements, relate to the highest price payable by any dealer (retailer) – excluding VAT – without applying any discounts and other price reductions.

Pop Promo

A short form music video used to promote one-off single record releases.

Post Synch

The process of revoicing any picture that is in vision and therefore necessitates lip synchronisation.


The Performing Right Society Limited. PRS is the UK copyright society that provides public performance and broadcast licences for broadcaster, cinemas, pubs, clubs and restaurants, live events and anywhere where their composer and publisher members’ musical works are heard.


Phonographic Performance Limited.  PPL is the UK organisation that provides public performance and broadcast licences representing both record companies and the artists, musicians and singers whose performances are embodied on the labels’ recorded music products.


The distribution of the Advertisement(s) by any and all forms of radio programme service whether digital or analogue.


The original picture and sound that are filmed/recorded in the field.


When a music producer, artist or musician incorporates a clip or sample from another copyright work, the rights to use that sample must be cleared and formally licensed.

Source Music

Music that is additional to the original score. It refers to music in a film or video which can be background music (e.g. from a radio or TV) or created by the characters themselves as part of the plot. The opposite of “source music” is “underscoring”.

Sound Bearing Contrivances

Implements or devices by which musical and other sounds are produced.


The electronic transmission of the Advertisement(s) via the Internet intended for simultaneous reception and viewing by users via personal devices which method uses effective technological measures to prevent the same from being stored by the user (other than temporarily in a cache for the purposes of displaying the same) or from being reproduced for future use.


The pairing of music and visuals. The recording of music in timed relation with film. A ‘sync’ licence grants the right for the initial fixation of music to be combined with visual material to create & produce audio-visual products.


The process of enhancing the recorded sound by adding various sound be they atmospheric, clearer dialogue, sound effects.


The opposite of “source music”, the “underscore” is specially composed to highlight the on-screen action.


“Ivan was extremely skillful in guiding us through the process of acquiring music rights for our digital programme. From start to finish he advised us promptly and clearly on the steps in the process to clear each of our chosen tracks and acquired the clearances we needed in the very tight timeline we had. I would thoroughly recommend his services.”

Niamh Dilworth, Senior Producer, Unicorn Theatre

Upcoming Events:

Ivan Chandler regularly runs Copyright Training courses.

If you'd like us to run a course just for you: click to email us or call us on 01590 719983.